Close Binary

close binary BINARY STAR that has an orbital period of less than 30 years, implying that the two components are less than about 10 AU apart. Because of this proximity, most close binaries are SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES and/or ECLIPSING BINARIES. MASS TRANSFER occurs at some stage in most close binaries, profoundly affecting the evolution of the component stars. If the two components in a close binary do not fill their ROCHE LOBES, the system is a detached binary. In a semidetached binary one star fills its Roche lobe and mass transfer occurs. In a CONTACT BINARY both stars fill their Roche lobes.

The evolution of close binaries depends on the initial masses of the two stars and their separation. The more massive star will evolve into a RED GIANT and fill its Roche lobe; material will spill through the inner LAGRANGIAN POINT on to its companion, thereby affecting its companion's evolution. The mass transfer can also alter the separation and orbital period of the binary star.

In binaries that are initially widely separated, material escaping from the Roche lobe of the evolved red giant immerses the system in material, creating a common envelope binary that contains the core of the red giant (a WHITE DWARF) and the companion star. Frictional forces cause the two components to approach, and thus the orbital period shortens. The common envelope is ejected and a CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE is left, in which the mass transfer from the companion on to the white dwarf causes the periodic outbursts seen in NOVAE, RECURRENT NOVAE, DWARF NOVAE and SYMBIOTIC STARS.

If one component of a close binary is massive enough, it may become a NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE. Such binary systems are observed (see X-RAY BINARIES), but often a supernova explosion will blow the system apart into separate single stars.

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