Aristotle (384-322 bc) Greek philosopher and polymath who developed a cosmology based upon a 'perfect' Earth-centred Universe. In 367 bc he enrolled at Plato's Academy, where he studied under eudoxus; in 335 bc he founded his own school at Athens, called the Lyceum. It was there that Aristotle developed a cosmology incorporating the 'four elements' of earth, air, fire and water, and the four 'fundamental qualities' -hot, cold, dry and wet. These ideas led him to reject the idea of a vacuum and, therefore, any atomic theory, because this demanded the presence of particles existing in empty space. Aristotle also considered and rejected any idea of a moving Earth. Aristotle taught that the Universe was spherical, with the Sun, Moon and planets carried round on concentric spheres nesting inside one another. The Earth itself was a sphere, Aristotle reasoned, because of the shape of the shadow cast on the Moon in a lunar eclipse. All these celestial bodies were eternal and unchanging, and he thought of them being composed of a fifth element or essence. The outermost sphere carried the 'fixed stars'; it controlled the other spheres, and was itself controlled by a supernatural 'prime mover'.

In Aristotle's Universe everything had its natural place. 'Earthy' materials fell downwards because they sought their natural place at the centre of the spherical Earth, which was itself at the centre of the Universe. Water lay in a sphere covering the Earth, hence its tendency to 'find its own level'. Outside the sphere of water lay that of the air, and beyond this was the sphere of fire; flames always burned upwards because they were seeking their natural place above the air. Change was confined to the terrestrial world, the 'sublunary' region lying inside the Moon's sphere. As a result meteors, comets and other transitory events were thought to occur in the upper air; they were classified as meteorological phenomena.

The Aristotelian world-view, as modified by Ptolemy, would hold sway for nearly two millennia, thanks in part to its incorporation into the doctrines of the Catholic Church. See also geocentric theory

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What feature of Aristotle's model of the universe was included in the model proposed by Copernicus?...


How did Ptolemey change Aristotle’s model to account for retrograde motion?...

c)He positioned planets on epicyclesc) He positioned planets on epicycles
Which erroneous idea last till present times.

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… electronic young Alexander the fantastic. With Alexander’s authorization he returned to Athens within 335 BC, in which he set up their own school within the Lyceum. It had been here that he resided out his days, creating, teaching, and exploring.

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